Baza de date „Diacronia” (BDD)
Titlu:

Les unités lexicales complexes dans le langage spécialisé: étude diachronique

Autor:
Publicația: Annals of „Valahia” University of Târgovişte. Letters Section, IX (1)
p-ISSN:2066-6373
Editura:Valahia University Press
Locul:Târgoviște
Anul:
Rezumat:Linguists increasingly observed that complex lexical units exceeded the morphological and syntactic framework of the word, forming clusters of a particular type. Charles Bally (1965), F. de Saussure’s disciple, considered them initially as phraseological units. Andre Martinet offered an analysis of statements and fragments of sentences in successive minimal significant units, which he called monemes; moneme’s upper linguistic unit was designated as autonomous collocation.
The theoretical concept formulated by E. Benveniste has contributed to the recognition of a special status of lexical collocations as units operating in language, a concept that imagines the formation of lexical phrases and the transition from utterance (le discursive) to the lexicon (le lexical), called synapses. French linguist Louis Guilbert (1975) furthers the research regarding the status of complex lexical units designated by E. Benveniste as synapses. Guilbert was concerned in particular with syntagmatic composition or synaptique as defined by Benveniste.
As synapses are, par excellence, complex lexical units, technical languages are found in all classifications and in all specialized languages. Starting from the benvenistien concept of synapses, we define a new means of lexical formation, synaptation, designated as a basic process of syntagmatic derivation within scientific technical language. We define synapses as a fixed lexical syntagm with constant and specific paradigm that is characterized by flexibility, being composed of determinate and determiner united or disjointed by synaptic junctures. Within the process of synaptation, we have identified several types of synaptic constructions. According to the degree of synaptability, synapses are divided into: a) monosynapses; b) disynapses; c) polysynapses.
As shown by E. Benveniste, technical languages resort to this process of synaptability within analytical terminology. It should be noted an important factor which results from the concept of synaptic formation: synapses need not contain technical lexeme; it may be composed of words of common language, but in terms of synaptic order.
Cuvinte-cheie:Legal language, synaptation, synaptability, synapses, monosynapses, disynapses, polysynapses, junctures
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125Ferdinand de SaussureCurs de lingvistică generalăEditura Polirom1998

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