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Termeni pentru noţiunile «puer» şi «heres» în limba română istoria schimbărilor de sens şi difuziune dialectală

Publication: Lucrările celui de-al XIV-lea Simpozion Internațional de Dialectologie, p. 450
Editors:Nicolae Mocanu, Dumitru Loșonți, Eugen Beltechi
Publisher:Argonaut, Scriptor
Abstract:We have endeavoured to trace the different manners of expressing the notions «puer» and «heres» through the three centuries (16th – 18th) of the period called „Old Daco-Romanian”, by examining the most important sources (literary texts as well as documents), with a view to a most complete illustration of the dialectal variety. The separation or the syncretism of the two notions has been equally pursued, inasmuch as certain words are specialised for one of the two senses, whereas others are mostly used as lexicalisation of both senses, according to the vicinity in which they appear.
This search has enabled us to establish:
1. The most ancient word for «puer», the inherited *fetiolus (a diminutive of fetus) is already an archaism in Old Daco-Romanian, that is to say it has an acute tendency to become a mere synonym for «filius», by losing its etymological sense of «a result of the act of bearing; newly born».
2. The next word in the order of ancestry, cocon (a balkanic word), although a widely spread word in old Daco-Romanian, has a defined tendency to decrease towards the end of the 17th century, especially by losing its general sense «puer», consequently to a semantic narrowing as «child of royal pedigree».
3. The etymologically disputed word prunc (*puerunculus / obscure origin), not decidedly limited in old Daco-Romanian as to geographic dispersion (though sensibly stronger in the north-western area), can be said to be since the 18th century a dialectal word, peculiar to all Transylvania (including the Banat). On the other hand, it is – since the thorough passage of fecior and cocon to the senses «filius; adulescens» (today dialectal), respectively «royal child» (today out of usage; extremely reduced as a dialectal word with the etymological sense in the Maramureş) – a historically prominent word and therefore not only a strongly marked dialectal word today (peculiar to Crişana and the Romanian idioms of eastern Hungary), but also a literary word used in the most conservative texts of the Romanian Orthodox Church.
4. The standard word for «puer» today, copil (a balkanic word itself) – which has also at present the greatest dialectal dispersion – is an originally «spurius» meaning word, whose dialectal expansion is a most noticeable phenomenon since the half of the 17th century and whose original meaning seems to have vanished in parallel with its geographic advancement.
Key words:
  • «copil», «fiu», sincretism semantic, schimbări semantice, arii dialectale
  • «child», «son», semantic syncretism, semantic changes, dialectal areas
Language: Romanian

Citations to this publication: 0

References in this publication: 12

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