Diacronia 6, September 30, 2017, art. A85 (p. 1–15)

Morphosyntactic features of the indefinite tot in old Romanian

Isabela Nedelcu


  • Faculty of Letters, University of Bucharest, Str. Edgar Quinet 5–7, Sector 1, 010017 Bucharest, Romania
  • “Iorgu Iordan – Al. Rosetti” Institute of Linguistics, Calea 13 Septembrie 13, 050711 Bucharest, Romania


Received May 26, 2017
Accepted June 3, 2017
Published September 30, 2017

Key words

indefinite pronoun
indefinite adjective
old Romanian


This article establishes and discusses a series of morphosyntactic features of the indefinite tot ‘whole, all’ in old Romanian, relating them to modern Romanian: forms that disappeared from the language, a wider variety of singular and plural genitive-dative markers (synthetic, analytic and mixed), the more permissive word order and the possibility to occur in a structure with an undetermined noun. The description of the grammatical characteristics of the quantifier tot highlights a great variation: (i) between the synthetic, analytic and mixed realization of the genitive-dative case (toatei all.F.SG.GEN≡DAT ‘of/to the whole’ + genitive-dative noun, a/la/de toată A/LA/DE all.F.SG.NOM≡ACC ‘of/to the whole’ + nominative-accusative noun, a toată A all.F.SG.NOM≡ACC ‘of/to the whole’ + genitive-dative noun); (ii) between the (pronominal and adjectival) form with the final particle –a and the one without –a (tuturor, tuturora ‘of all / to all’; tuturor oamenilor ‘of/to all the people’, tuturora fraților ‘of/to all the brothers’); (iii) between the postposition and anteposition of tot relative to certain pronouns (ei toți, toți ei ‘all of them’); (iv) between structures with a determined and an undetermined noun (toate zilele, toate zile ‘all the days’). The comparison with the modern language shows that, in some cases, this variation has been eliminated, and in other cases, it is preserved.


  • Full text (in English; 15 p., 180 KB)
  • 13 references and 0 citations in BDD
  • Export citation
    Text:Nedelcu, I. (2017). Morphosyntactic features of the indefinite tot in old Romanian, Diacronia 6 (September 30), A85 (1–15),
     author = {Isabela Nedelcu},
     title = {Morphosyntactic features of the indefinite tot in old Romanian},
     journal = {Diacronia},
     ISSN = {2393-1140},
     year = {2017},
     month = {September},
     number = {6},
     eid = {A85},
     doi = {},
     pages = "(1–15)",
     url = {}


© 2017 The Authors. Publishing rights belong to the Journal. The article is freely accessible under the terms and conditions of the CC-BY Open Access licence.

Statistics (RO/EN/Total)

  • Views (this page): 1585 / 1415 / 3000

  • Downloads (full text): 1836 / 1742 / 3578