“Diacronia” bibliometric database (BDD)

Cuvinte de mediu militar (daco-)roman în română

Publication: Dacoromania. Serie nouă, XV (2), p. 119
Publisher:Editura Academiei
Abstract:The Romanian language presents some differences comparatively to the ensemble of the western Romance languages. We explain these specific features not only by isolation, but also by the influence of military (daco-)roman jargon (sermo castrensis) on this one. Especially, by specific semantic changes, as (1) extends of sense (lat. turma → rom. sense „herd” etc.), (2) specializations (lat. civitatem → rom. sense „fortress” etc.), (3) metaphors (lat. cafea → rom. sense „helmet” etc.), (4) metonymy (lat. fossatum → rom. sense „village” etc.), (5) soldierly creation (lat. pressūrare rom. sense „to encircle” etc.), (6) abbreviation of orders (lat. plĭcāre tentōria > rom. a pleca „to leave” etc.) a.s.o. Also, the continuation only in Romanian language of some Latin words with theirs classic sense (as imperator, prōcēdere, lĭngulă etc.) is duet o the intense circulation of these words in the military (Daco-)Roman medium.
From the viewpoint of linguistic interest, the present study: (a) precises the Latin origin of some Romanian words, removing etymological errors (as coif, a înşela, sat etc.), (b) explains the absence of some Latin words in Romanian language (like pagensis, imitari, sensus etc.) and (c) introduces the criterion of the frontier-military Latin in the semantic analysis.
The ample influence of the military environment in Dacia is duet o the dispersion of the military units in this bridgehead of the Roman Empire defence, contrary (for. ex.) to the renan army, which concentrated at the Germanic limes – couldn’t to influence the spoken Latin in whole Galia. Otherwise, the Romanian language is the single continuer of a frontier Latin, because today the renan, african and other frontiers of the Roman Empire are not Romances.
From the viewpoint of historic interest, in a period without much documents, the presence of the words and semantic changes, specifics to the ancestral military environment, in the Romanian language point out the permanent and aware combat of the (Daco-)Romans/Romanians (look only towards lat. terra „earth” > rom. ţară „homeland” and lat. romanus > rom. român) in order to safeguard theirs lands, existence, etnicity (culture and language) and honour, against secular attacks of the barbarians (germanic, turanian and slav tribes, after states).
Language: Romanian

Citations to this publication: 1

References in this publication: 16

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