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A cafti, caltaboş, chiul. Note etimologice şi lexicale

Publication: Limba română, LXV (3), Section Viața cuvintelor, p. 363-377
Publisher:Editura Academiei
Abstract:[A cafti, caltaboş, chiul. Etymological and lexical notes]
A CAFTÍ. The Romanian argotic verb a caftí ‘to larrup, to wallop’ does not have any Rroma (Gipsy) origin, being recorded in DEX, MDA, DEXI (etc.) with a non-existent etymon. Romanian a cafti and Macedo-Romanian căhtire are Albanian loanwords. Albanian kahtít ‘to shell, to crack etc.’ was borrowed by the Romanian argot at the beginning of the 19th century, through the slang of the “arnăuţi” – the Albanian mercenaries who have served in the Wallachian and Moldavian military police forces (until 1821), or as bodyguards of the Romanian princes and other rich boyards (until the beginning of the 20th century). The derivatives caftan3 ‘drubbing’, a căftăni2 ‘to larrup’ are mockingly homonymous with the older Turkish loanwords caftan1 ‘ceremonial (high rank) man’s gown’, a căftăni1 ‘to confer the title of boyard’. Caftí: borrowed from Albanian kahtit.
CALTABOŞ is not quite the same as the English black-pudding or the German Blutwurst. Caltaboş is a traditional home made boiled pork sausage, which consists of minced pork offal contained in pork large intestine sausage casing. The attempt to derive this word from its regional Romanian synonym câlbaş (from Slavic or Hungarian) is unlikely, as boaşă, pl. boaşe (newer singular: boş) is the common and the coarse name for a skin casing, atributed to both scrotum (testicles) and pork large intestines (which are traditionally used as sausage casing). Initially, in Old Romanian, a phrase such as *carc(ă) la boş ‘I, they stuff/ he, she stuffs the gut casing’, or even ‘a stuffing of the gut casing’ should have gone through normal phonetic alterations, evolving either from *carclaboş through *cartlaboş to the Northern Romanian variant cartaboş, and later into cârtaboş, or from *cartlaboş through a metathesis: *caltraboş and then, by the total dissimilation of the r, to the more common and better known variant caltaboş. Caltaboş/cartaboş: derived of Old Romanian phrase *carc(ă) la boş.
CHIUL. The colloquial word chiul ‘take-in, fraud, truancy’, used in the phrase a trage chiulul ‘to take somebody in, to play truant’ has no phonetical and historical relation with the French argotic and obscene phrase tirer au cul ‘to skulk away’. The Albanian colloquial word qyl means ‘costless food and drink (at one’s charge), bargain’, also ‘hunter for bargains, slacker’. The Albanian derivative qylaxhi is identical with the Romanian derivative chiulangiu: ‘slacker, cheater or swindler’. Albanian qyl was borrowed in Romanian similarly to a cafti ‘to larrup’, or şpagă ‘bribe’, through the slang of the “Arnăuţi” – the Albanian mercenaries who have served between the 17th and the 19th centuries in the Wallachian and Moldavian military police forces or as bodyguards of the Romanian rich boyards. Chiul: borrowed from Albanian qyl.
Key words:
  • etimologii, elemente de argou, împrumuturi albaneze recente, substantive derivate din expresii şi locuţiuni, a cafti, boş, caltaboş/cartaboş, chiul
  • etymologies, argotic terms, newer Albanian lexical borrowings, nouns derived from phrases, a cafti, boş, caltaboş/cartaboş, chiul
Language: Romanian

Citations to this publication: 1

References in this publication: 12

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