Baza de date „Diacronia” (BDD)

Caracterul romanic al limbii române

Publicația: Analele Universității din București. Limba și literatura română, LV
Editura:Editura Universității din Bucureşti
Rezumat:Romanian is one of Romance Languages which are derived from Vulgar Latin, namely Spoken Latin, whose structures are different from those of Classical Latin. Each one of these Romance languages has its own characteristics due to several reasons; first of all, to the language of the natives, so called substratum; secondly due to the neighboring languages, especially in our case the Slavonic languages. However, one can say that from the viewpoint of the phonological and morpho-syntactic aspects, Romanian generally preserves most of the features of Latin. Modern Romanian has 8 vowels (a, ă, â, e, i, î, o, u). However, the vowels â and î are pronounced equally as /ɨ/ so the Romanian Vowel System is composed of 7 vowel phonemes (a/a/, ă/ǝ/, â = î/ɨ/, e/e/, i/i/, o/o/, u/u/). The modern Romanian Vowel System has two vowel symbols which did not exist in Latin, namely ă/ǝ/ and â=î/ɨ/. These two phonemes should be viewed as being generated as a result of the influence from the Balkan substratum. As far as the Romanian consonant system is concerned, it has 19 (b, c, d, f, g, h, j, l, m, n, p, r, s, ş, t, ţ, v, x, z) and 4 consonant symbols (k, q, w, y) for the international terms. Among the Romance languages, Romanian is the only language which uses the glottal fricative h/ɦ/ as a phoneme. We can conjecture that the aspirate of Classical Latin was also lost in Romanian and then reintroduced by the influence of neighboring languages. Notice that this symbol generally appears in Slavonic based words (ex.: duh, hrană, hotar, hamal etc.). Concerning the morpho-syntax, one has to point out the fact that Romanian has some characters distinguished from the other Romance languages. It should be mentioned above all that there is the neutral gender in addition to masculine and feminine in Romanian. As the result the shift of genders became inevitable compared with other Romance languages. An example is the noun pâine which is feminie in Romanian, while it is masculine pão in Portuguese, pan in Spanish, pain in French and pane in Italian etc., whose origin is Latin panis(panem). It should not be skipped that the definite article is used as enclitic in Romanian. For example, ‘the man’ in English is omul in Romanian which is derived from Latin ille homo. As the vocabulary is concerned, Romanian has so many heterogeneous elements. Especially, Slavonic elements can be found in all of the Romanian grammatical categories. For instance, in Romanian one says da for ‘yes’or sută for ‘hundred’. However, according to a recent etymological research on 50 physical words of Romanian, 88% of the 50 physical words are of Latin or Romance origin. In this respect, one can agree with the Romanian linguist Al. Graur, who asserted that in languages, as in all phenomena, distinction must be made between ephemeral and lasting elements and between superficial and essential facts. And one has to rely much more on its stable elements than on the ephemeral words in order to characterize a language.
Cuvinte-cheie:Classic Latin, Vulgar Latin, Balkan Latin, Romance Languages, Phonology, Morphology, Syntax
Limba: română

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