Baza de date „Diacronia” (BDD)

Calcuri nerecomandate în limba româna actuală din Basarabia

Publicația: Studii și cercetări lingvistice, LXII (2), p. 253-263
Editura:Editura Academiei
Rezumat:The phenomenon of loan translation is a consequence of the interaction between (two) languages. Unlike productive calques (that enrich a language with new words and new meanings, according to the model of another language), the unrecommended calques alter a language system, representing a real threat to its integrity. The last category is characteristic to the current Romanian over the Prut river. The prolonged contact between Romanian language in Bessarabia and Russian, which has a large circulation in this geo-linguistic area, determined the change of the Romanian language structure, outlining its features that differ from the Romanian literary language. Based on the linguistic field in which the unrecommended calque phenomenon takes place, there are lexical calques (of semantic and morphemic structure), grammatical calques (of morphological and syntactic nature) and phraseological calques. The unrecommended semantic calques in Romanian over the Prut consists of assigning new meanings to the words in literary Romanian, under the influence of the Russian correspondent meanings. The unrecommended morphemic calques imitates the internal form of a foreign word (usually derived or compound), translating in the same time (totally or partially) the elements of the copied model. The unrecommended grammatical calques consists of taking over a grammatical category from Russian language, such as: voice paradigm, verbal prepositional regime, nominal prepositional regime etc. The unrecommended phraseological calques are defined by translating the lexical elements of Russian phraseological combinations ad litteram. The bilingualism in Bessarabia influenced in particular the vocabulary (both formally and semantically). The syntax is quite affected, especially in terms of verbal prepositional regime and nominal prepositional regime. The phenomenon affected less the morphology, given its strength in innovation and foreign influences.
Limba: română

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