Baza de date „Diacronia” (BDD)

Derivarea – o modalitate de organizare a vocabularului în cuiburi lexicale (II)

Publicația: Limba română, LXIII (3), p. 368
Editura:Editura Academiei
Rezumat:A language, natural or artificial, is a system formed from a multitude of signs and a set of norms that govern their combination. The vocabulary is the first of these two components, the multitude of signs. The organization of the vocabulary is an objective process and the lexicographers should try to approximate the organization of the multitude of signs in the speakers’ linguistic competence. The definition of the elements of this multitude is a controversial one. We may remember that the linguistic sign is the unit between two objects, a significant and a signifier and the connection between them is conventional and arbitrary. As regards the word, it is an auto-semantic linguistic sign linked to a concept, while other linguistic signs have a relational sense. Users have a powerful tendency to re-motivate partially the linguistic signs, analyzing their composition and establishing analogies between their structures. The causes of this tendency are subjective, among them the need for language expressiveness, but also objective, for instance the necessity to remember an ever greater number of signs. The organization of the vocabulary in families of words or lexical clusters the most efficient manner of organization, as it includes most of the words. Word formation represents a subsystem of the language, made up of a multitude of formants and radicals and a set of norms for their correct combination. If we consider this process from the point of view of the history of language, there are but few words about which we can be sure they were formed in Romanian. These words would form etymological families or clusters Many words are borrowed from other languages, but their structure may be analyzed by speakers of Romanian. It is difficult to establish whether the words were not formed in Romanian in parallel, independent of their having been formed in another language. From a synchronic point of view, all the words that may be analyzed enter the speakers’ competence and are structured in lexical families or clusters, irrespective of their etymological origin, which is at times uncertain. The earliest dictionaries organized on clusters appear in the first half of the 19th century. At the start of the new series of the dictionary of the Academy, giving up the lexical clusters is considered to be an important progress of Romanian lexicography. But in fact what attracted criticism in the former dictionaries were the inconsistencies and not the method in itself. The advantage of the method would be that of offering readers a lexical material that is formally and semantically structured, easy to remember, also of directing correctly their analytical and analogical spirit. As regards the productivity, we may notice a relationship between frequent usage, word age and the size of its lexical cluster. We might demonstrate how words that have just entered the language either join an existing family or form a new one, or migrate towards the periphery of the vocabulary and then are no longer used. There are a few recent dictionaries which have adopted again the old method of structuring. A dictionary structured on lexical cluster ought to comprise: a) the basic word and its etymology; b) the defining semantic notes of the entire family; c) headwords, their grammatical category and their specific defining notes, if they exist; d) the formal analysis followed by the etymology of the headword if it differs from the formal analysis; e) cross-references from the alphabetical place to the cluster where the word is treated. The etymological cluster should be the nucleus of the lexical cluster. In order to emphasize numerous clusters derivational patterns might be generated and we might distinguish graphically sub-clusters formed around verbs subordinated to the basic word. There is a possibility to include in clusters only derived words or to also include compound words together with compounding elements. These are very numerous, like the words themselves, as they are auto-semantic, and most of them belong to the scientific and technical vocabulary. In order to understand them we need to know their primary etymology, not the direct one. Thus, they will make the object of another type of dictionary, one that would be useful to creators of terminologies.
  • organizarea vocabularului, arbitrarul şi remotivarea semnului lingvistic, cuibul etimologic, cuibul lexical, criteriul analizabilităţii structurii cuvintelor
  • vocabulary organization, the arbitrariness and the remotivation of the linguistic sign, etymological cluster, lexical cluster, criterion of possibility to analyse the structure of words
Limba: română

Citări la această publicație: 0

Referințe în această publicație: 6

2Laura VasiliuDerivatele sufixale: sens și definițieSCL, XXXVII (2), 1461986
1Laura VasiliuModalități de descriere a sensului în derivareLR, XXXII (3), 1901983
5Petru ZugunCuvântul
Studiu gramatical
Editura Științifică și Enciclopedică1983
1Laura VasiliuPreliminarii la o tratare sistematică a semanticii derivatelor sufixaleSCL, XXIX (4), 3871978
7Emanuel VasiliuPreliminarii logice la semantica frazeiEditura Științifică și Enciclopedică1978
58Mircea SecheSchiță de istorie a lexicografiei române
I. De la origini până la 1880; II. De la 1880 până astăzi
Editura Științifică1966, 1969

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